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The Difference between hot chamber and cold chamber die casting

    Hot chamber and cold chamber die casting are the mains die casting methods in the market nowadays, The most of die casting factory use one die casting methods. because the materials used are different and the process is different, but do you know the specific difference? Today we discuss in depth. keep reading.

    injection metal alloy Material

    Hot Chamber Die Casting

    Hot Chamber Die Casting Process

    Hot chamber die casting,also known as gooseneck casting, is a process primarily used for zinc, magnesium, and other low-melting-point alloys. In this method, the metal reservoir and the injection mechanism are submerged in the molten metal bath. The main characteristics of hot chamber die casting include:

    Process Overview

    The process starts with the die closed.

    Molten metal is drawn into the chamber by a hydraulic piston.

    The metal is then injected into the die cavity under high pressure.

    Once solidified, the part is ejected, and the cycle repeats.

    AdvantagesDisadvantages
    Faster cycle times due to continuous molten metalLimited to metals with low melting points
    Ideal for high-volume production runsNot suitable for metals with high melting points
    Minimal metal wastage as injection mechanism remains submerged
    Hot Chamber Die Casting Advantages and Disadvantage

    Cold Chamber Die Casting

    Cold-Chamber-Die-Casting-machine-components

    Cold chamber die casting is suitable for metals that cannot be processed in the hot chamber die casting process. These metals include aluminum, magnesium, copper, and zinc alloys with high aluminum content.

    Process Overview

    The process begins with the die closed and the molten metal in the holding furnace.

    A ladle pours the molten metal into the cold chamber.

    A hydraulic piston injects the metal into the die cavity under high pressure.

    After solidification, the part is ejected, and the cycle repeats.

    AdvantagesDisadvantages
    Versatility in casting various metals, including those with high melting pointsLonger cycle times compared to hot chamber die casting due to the need to ladle metal into the machine
    Allows for better control over the injection process, resulting in higher precisionHigher initial setup costs due to the need for a separate melting furnace
    Suitable for larger parts and complex geometries
    Cold Chamber Die Casting Advantages and Disadvantages

    The Difference between hot chamber and cold chamber die casting

    As die casting suppliers, we possess extensive experience with both hot chamber and cold chamber die casting machines. We’re familiar with the details of each process, which you can find below.

    AspectHot Chamber Die CastingCold Chamber Die Casting
    Material TypeSuitable for low-melting-point alloys like zinc and magnesiumPreferred for metals with high melting points such as aluminum and copper
    Production VolumeMore efficient for high-volume production runs due to faster cycle timesBetter suited for smaller production runs and prototyping
    Part ComplexityMay be sufficient for simpler designsOffers better control for intricate parts with tight tolerances
    Cost ConsiderationsGenerally has lower initial setup costsMay offer better long-term cost efficiency, especially for high-cost metals

    Types of die casting machines

    Die Casting MachineMaterials
    Hot Chamber Die Casting MachineZinc Alloy; Magnesium Alloy; Lead alloy;  non-ferrous metals
    Cold Chamber Die Casting MachineAluminium Alloy, Brass, Copper; non-ferrous metals

    Molten Temperature

    As you know, each metal has a different molten temperature. However, there’s a range. According to this range, you can find the details below.

    MaterailMolten Temperature range
    Zinc Alloy; Magnesium Alloy; Lead alloyAround 450 degree
    Aluminium Alloy, Brass, CopperAround 620 degree
    die casting material molten range

    Furnace Location

    The molten metal furnace is located differently for hot chamber and cold chamber die casting to save energy and facilitate casting.

    ProcessFurnace Location
    Hot Chamber Die Casting Processinside die casting machine, shorten metal channel, cut energy lost, isolation air, to avoid metal oxidization.
    Cold Chamber Die Casting ProcessSide of Die casting machine, feed by manual or robot.
    Furnace Location

    Cycle Time

    Hot chamber die casting cycle time is more fast than cold chamber die casting. for examples, our multi-slider die casting machine cycle time around 7 seconds.

    The cycle time for cold chamber die casting is significantly longer because it requires manual or robotic feeding of molten metal. Consequently, it consumes a considerable amount of time.

    Product size

    ProcessProduct size
    Hot chambersmall part.
    Cold chamberbigger part, max weight can achieve 70kg per part, for examples, body of Tesla is using Cold chamber custom die casting machine.

    Dies/Tooling Life

    both hot and cold chamber can use same mold steel to build dies or tooling. due to hot chamber metal temperature relative low, lower impact on mold steel when solidify part, caused hot chamber die casting dies or tooling much more longer lifetime.

    Working Environment

    ProcessWorking Environment
    Hot chamberFurnace built-in equipment, relative more cleaning
    Cold ChamberFurnace side the machine, need feed material manual or robot. more dust, and relative danger.

    Conclusion

    Both hot chamber and cold chamber die casting have pros and cons. By knowing their differences and considering factors like material, volume, complexity, and cost, manufacturers can make informed decisions.


    In summary, hot chamber die casting is efficient for low-melting-point alloys, while cold chamber die casting offers versatility for high-melting-point metals. By choosing the right method, manufacturers can achieve optimal results and drive die casting innovation.

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