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What is Permanent Mold Casting and how does it work?

    Gravity die casting parts

    Permanent Mold Casting is a manufacturing process used to cast intricate shapes with high dimensional accuracy and a fine surface finish. It is also known as gravity die casting or chill casting. The Permanent Mold Casting process involves pouring molten metal into a reusable metal mold, which is usually made of steel or cast iron. The mold, in this case, is called a “permanent mold” because it can be reused multiple times for the same or different products.

    Permanent Mold Casting

    The Permanent Mold Casting process works as follows:

    1. Preparation: The permanent mold casting process begins by preparing the mold, which is made of two halves fixed together. The mold’s interior surfaces are coated with a release agent to prevent the molten metal from sticking to the mold during solidification and cooling.
    2. Preheating: The mold is then preheated to a temperature between 300-600°F depending on the type of metal being cast. Preheating helps reduce thermal shock and prevents cracking or warping of the mold when the hot molten metal is poured.
    3. Pouring: Molten metal is heated to a temperature above its melting point and poured into the mold cavity through a gating system. The gating system comprises sprue, runners, and gates that control the flow of molten metal to the mold cavity without any turbulence or air pockets.
    4. Solidification: Once the mold cavity is filled with molten metal, the metal cools and solidifies until it takes the shape of the mold cavity.
    5. Ejection: After the metal has cooled and solidified, the mold is opened, and the part or casting is ejected from the mold using pins, ejector plates, or hydraulic cylinders.
    6. Finishing: The finished casting may require some finishing operations, such as trimming excess metal, sandblasting, grinding, or coating, to meet the desired specifications.

    Advantages of Permanent Mold Casting include:

    • Produces parts with high dimensional accuracy, excellent surface finish, and repeatability.
    • The process is well suited for producing intricate shapes with fine details.
    • The molds can be reused many times, reducing the overall cost of production.
    • The process allows for quick heat transfer from the molten metal to the mold, resulting in a faster cooling rate.

    Some of the disadvantages of this process include:

    • Limited flexibility since permanent molds can’t be easily modified or repaired.
    • Higher tooling costs may be required compared to other casting processes such as sand casting.
    • Only suitable for materials with a low melting point such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper.

    In conclusion, Permanent Mold Casting is a manufacturing process that allows for the production of high-quality castings with intricate shapes, high precision, and excellent surface finish. It employs a reusable metal mold that can be used multiple times, reducing the overall cost of production. This process is suitable for materials with a low melting point such as aluminum, copper, and magnesium. Although this process has some limitations in terms of flexibility and higher tooling costs, it offers several advantages, including high accuracy, fine surface finish, repeatability, and quick heat transfer. It is a well-established method used in various industries to produce complex parts for many applications.